In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered that the magnitude of redshifted light observed from distant galaxies was exactly proportional to the distance of such galaxies from the Earth. He called this correct empirical observation, “The Law of Redshifts.”

Based on Hubble’s observations, Arthur Eddington and most other scientists immediately interpreted such systematically increasing redshifts to mean that there was a relative Doppler velocity between the Earth and such distant galaxies. In other words, that all of such distant galaxies were systematically moving away from the Earth at ever increasing speeds which were proportional to their distance from the Earth. These scientists then deduced from such interpretation that the universe must be systematically expanding in all directions from the Earth.

In 1952, George Gamow metaphorically played the movie of the expanding universe back to its beginning and then deduced that the universe must have begun with a Big Bang.

The monumental problem with all of these interpretations and deductions is that they were all based upon a false premise. Doppler velocities are only observed because of relative motions between two luminous celestial objects. Empirically, there is no correlation or proportionality whatsoever between the observed magnitude of Doppler velocities and the distances between any two relatively moving objects. It is an undisputed fact that all Doppler velocities are completely arbitrary.

For this reason, Hubble’s correct law of redshifts (which were observed to be exactly proportional to distance) could not have implied or indicated a relative Doppler velocity between the Earth and such distant galaxies. Therefore, it must follow that the Expanding Universe and the Big Bang are false concepts.